a) The human body
The human body consists of flesh, muscles, bones, skin and complexion. There are three main parts: head, trunk and limbs. The head, which is partly covered by hair, contains the brain. It is the centre of nervous system. The main parts of the face are forehead, nose, cheeks, chin, mouth, lips, ears and eyes. Our neck connects head with trunk. The basic parts of trunk are shoulders, breast, stomach, buttock and hips. Arms and legs are considered to be the limbs of human body. The arm consists of shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand with five fingers. The leg consists of thigh, knee, calf and foot. Each foot has five toes. There are important internal organs inside the body. The most important are heart and lungs. We shouldn´t forget to mention kidneys, liver and intestines.
b) Common and civilizational diseases, at the doctor
Most people go through various common diseases during their childhood and adult life. The majority of these diseases are not serious and do not take a long time to cure because we have efficient medication against them. Such diseases are flu, pneumonia or tonsillitis. Typical childhood diseases are measles, mumps and smallpox, but there are also some diseases which we cannot cure at all yet. They are for example: cancer, AIDS or diabetes.
Civilization diseases are stress, depression and insomnia, which, if not treated, can lead to serious nervous breakdown and then must be treated in mental hospital or by a psychiatrist. These mental disorders are often caused with hectic lifestyle, lack of vitamins, unhealthy daily routine or insufficient sleep. Also quite common are diseases of blood system, such as high blood pressure. Other civilization diseases are allergies and asthma.
We visit doctors when we feel ill or if we have a health problem. Each person should undergo a regular check-up at least once a year. We can go to the health centre, policlinic, hospital or to private doctor. The nurse invites us into the consulting room. She wants to see our insurance card. The doctor examines our body. He usually examines chest and throat, checks blood pressure or feels the pulse. Then he asks about the symptoms and usually prescribes some medication - pills, antibiotics or ointments. They are usually available on prescription in a pharmacy. In some cases we need to make an appointment with a specialist. There are various types of physicians: GP (general practitioners), dentists, surgeons, internist, paediatricians, and psychiatrists. Serious cases - such as heart attack, appendices, broken bones, animal or snake bite, severe bleeding - sometimes need special treatment in the hospital.
In more serious cases - at injuries, casualties or case of unconsciousness - comes an ambulance car and drivers transport one to the hospital. Sometimes it is necessary to render first aid to save the human life.
c) Healthy life style
Our health depends on our lifestyle. For many people, bad health begins with a bad diet. We should have a balanced diet that will provide the needed vitamins, minerals and nutrients. Fresh foods are the best, including plenty of vegetables and fruits. It is recommended to eat brown bread, fish and white meat. Salt, fat and sugar should be limited in our meals. It is also important to eat regularly, but not too late in the evening and avoid overeating. We should also drink enough water every day - about six glasses. If there is a lack of water in our body, we feel tired. Healthy drinks are water, mineral water, herb teas or juices.
Exercise is very important for good health. Everybody should choose an activity that he will enjoy and that is not too strenuous. If you exercise regularly, you will feel fitter and stronger. Your body will be able to fight illnesses.
It is also important to keep our mind in good order. We should try to be happy and smile more because stress is a kind of illness itself and it can lead to many others.
The rest is another significant thing which influences our health. We need to have about 8 hours of sleep every night to avoid tiredness, weakness and irritability. Specialists advise to sleep in a room that is not overheated and has some air circulation. It is also essential to practise good hygiene.
d) Medical care
A healthy lifestyle, prevention and personal responsibility for our health can help us avoid possible dangers. Many people care about their health, go to the doctor for check-ups regularly and see the dentist twice a year. Others still need to learn that they need to care about themselves because to be healthy means to have a longer and happier life. Medical care is provided for citizens from birth to death. We try to prevent diseases by healthy lifestyle, hardening our body, but we can also be vaccinated. Soon after birth, each child is vaccinated against illnesses such as tuberculosis, tetanus and smallpox. Due to vaccination, these illnesses have disappeared. Nowadays we can let us vaccinate even against flu.
e) State and private medical care
People who are employed pay their health insurance monthly. They do not need to pay for basic health care and basic medication. When they want extra care or special treatment, they have to pay the extra costs. Everybody in our country has the right to choose his doctor. There are two types of doctors. First, we can go to a state doctor. When we choose a state doctor, our insurance company covers almost all expenses. There are also private doctors, but you must pay for everything on your own there. State doctors are said to have better equipment. Some people prefer to go to a private health care centre, usually for surgical interventions, delivery or dental care.
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